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The cell is the smallest structure of the body capable of performing all of the processes that define life. Each of the organs in the body, such as lungs, breast, colon, and brain consists of specialized cells that carry out the organ's functions such as the transportation of oxygen, digestion of nutrients, excretion of waste materials, locomotion, reproduction, thinking etc. To assure the proper performance of each organ, worn out or injured cells must be replaced. Many processes are involved in cell reproduction and all these processes have to take place correctly for a cell to divide properly. If anything goes wrong during this complicated process, a cell may become cancerous. A cancer cell is a cell that grows out of control. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells ignore signals to stop dividing, to specialize, or to die and be shed. Growing in an uncontrollable manner and unable to recognize its own natural boundary, the cancer cells may spread to areas of the body where they do not belong. This session discusses more about cancer and cell biology.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Organ Specific Cancers are cancers named based on the location of cancer in the body organ. Its incidence is showing an increasing trend in various parts of the globe and has been a significant public health problem despite advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular events that underlie. There are different types of cancers based on location of cancer in the body organ such as brain cancer, head and neck cancer, oral cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney or renal cell cancer, leukemia etc. These types of cancers come under the category of organ specific cancers. This session discusses more about organ specific cancer.
Hematologic malignancies are forms of cancer that begin in the cells of blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, or in the cells of the immune system. Examples of hematologic cancer are acute and chronic leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndromes. While uncommon in solid tumors, chromosomal translocations are a common cause of these diseases. This commonly leads to a different approach in diagnosis and treatment of haematological malignancies.
Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated genes. It focuses on genomic, epigenomic and transcript alterations in cancer. The goal of oncogenomics is to identify new oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes that may provide new insights into cancer diagnosis, predicting clinical outcome of cancers and new targets for cancer therapies. The success of targeted cancer therapies such as Gleevec, Herceptin and Avastin raised the hope for oncogenomics to elucidate new targets for cancer treatment. Oncogenomics targets personalized cancer treatment. Cancer develops due to DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations that accumulate randomly. Identifying and targeting the mutations in an individual patient may lead to increased treatment efficacy. The completion of the Human Genome Project facilitated the field of oncogenomics and increased the abilities of researchers to find oncogenes. Sequencing technologies and global methylation profiling techniques have been applied to the study of oncogenomics. This session discusses more about oncogenomics.
Neonatal cancer is rare and comprises a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with substantial histological diversity. Almost all types of paediatric cancer can occur in fetuses and neonates. However, the presentation and behavior of neonatal tumors often differs from that in older children leading to differences in diagnosis and management. Other congenital abnormalities are frequently present. Teratoma and neuroblastoma are the most common histological types of neonatal cancer, with soft-tissue sarcoma, leukaemia, renal tumors, and brain tumors also among the more frequent types. Prenatal detection, most often on routine ultrasound or in the context of a known predisposition syndrome, is becoming more common. Treatment options pose challenges because of the particular vulnerability of the population. Neonatal cancer raises diagnostic, therapeutic, and ethical issues, and management requires a multidisciplinary approach. This session discusses more about pediatric and neonatal oncology.
Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. In the United States, 82,000 women are diagnosed with gynecologic cancer annually. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology and the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology are professional organizations for gynecologic oncologists. Gynecologic Oncology is a professional organization for gynecological oncologists and other medical professionals corcerning gynecologic cancers. Gynecologic oncology specializes in diagnosing and treating cancers that are located on a woman's reproductive organs. Gynecologic oncology is also inter-related to obstetrics. This session discusses more about gynecologic oncology.
Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells. Specifically, a carcinoma is a cancer that begins in a tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body, and that arises from cells originating in the endodermal, mesodermal or ectodermal germ layer during embryogenesis. Carcinomas occur when the DNA of a cell is damaged or altered and the cell begins to grow uncontrollably and become malignant. Borderline epithelial tumors are also known as atypical proliferating tumors and used to be called low malignant potential tumors. These tumors look the same as invasive epithelial ovarian cancers when seen on an ultrasound or CT scan. Doctors can't be sure whether a tumor is invasive or borderline until a biopsy sample has been taken usually during surgery and checked in a lab. This session discusses more about epithelial cancers.
Immunotherapy is a kind of disease treatment that enables your invulnerable framework to battle malignancy. The resistant framework enables your body to battle contaminations and different sicknesses. It is made up of white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system.The immune system distinguishes and destroys abnormal cells and most likely prevents or controls the growth of many cancers.The invulnerable framework can adjust consistently and progressively, much the same as malignant growth does, so if a tumor figures out how to escape discovery, the insusceptible framework can reconsider and dispatch another assault.
Cancer Stem Cells or CSCs are cancer cells found within tumors or hematological cancers that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic or tumor-forming, perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. Cancer Stem Cells may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. Such cells are hypothesized to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors. Therefore, development of specific therapies targeted at Cancer Stem Cells holds hope for improvement of survival and quality of life of cancer patients, especially for patients with metastatic disease. This session discusses more about cancer stem cells.
Leukemia is an unregulated proliferation of haematopoietic tissue that progressively displaces normal blood cell elements. A study included Horseradish peroxidase conjugated Canavalia gladiata lectin used to evaluate its binding property to different types of leukemic cells and to investigate whether the lectin could be used for the typing of leukemias. The presence of lectin receptors on the blastic cells could be of considerable importance because they may serve as targets for drug binding and enable selective destruction of pathogenic cells. Lectin cytochemical studies in leukemia revealed its usefulness in differentiating lymphoid leukemias from myeloid leukemias. Advances in the design and production of immunotoxins containing the bacterial protein toxin PE have made possible the clinical testing of promising new targeted agents for treatment of hematologic malignancies. A milestone in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia or CLL was reached with the incorporation of immunotherapy with conventional chemotherapy. This session discusses more about leukemia.
Breast and Cervical Cancers are a challenge to oncologists to manage. Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from cells originating in the cervix uteri. One of the most common symptoms of cervical cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding, but in some cases there may be no obvious symptoms until the cancer has progressed to an advanced stage. The mainstay of treatment in cancer cervix is radiotherapy.The hormonal treatment enabled control of most climacteric symptoms, without any serious side-effects as well relieved rectal, bladder, and vaginal postradiological complications. Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. It is a steroid hormone–dependent tumor. The importance of hormone status in breast cancer patients is because estrogen and progesterone are the key determinants of the therapy. Estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) can increase both normal and abnormal breast cell growth. Estrogen and progesterone receptors are highly predictive of breast cancer that will benefit from endocrine therapy. This session discusses more about breast and cervical cancers.
Although there has been a renewed interest in the field of cancer metabolism in the last decade the link between metabolism and DNA damage/DNA repair in cancer has yet to be appreciably explored. Regulation of methyl-and acetyl-group donors through different metabolic pathways can impact DNA folding and remodeling, an essential part of accurate double strand break repair. Glutamine, aspartate, and other nutrients are essential for de novo nucleotide synthesis, which dictates the availability of the nucleotide pool, and thereby influences DNA repair and replication. Reactive oxygen species, which can increase oxidative DNA damage and hence the load of the DNA-repair machinery, are regulated through different metabolic pathways. Interestingly, while metabolism affects DNA repair, DNA damage can also induce metabolic rewiring. Activation of the DNA damage response or DDR triggers an increase in nucleotide synthesis and anabolic glucose metabolism, while also reducing glutamine anaplerosis. This session discusses more about DNA repair and cancer.
Chemotherapy or chemo is the use of any drug to treat any disease. But to most people, the word chemotherapy means drugs used for cancer treatment. Surgery and radiation therapy remove, kill, or damage cancer cells in a certain area, but chemo can work throughout the whole body. This means chemo can kill cancer cells that have spread metastasized to parts of the body far away from the original primary tumor. Chemo is used to shrink tumors and or stop the cancer from growing and spreading. This can help the person with cancer feel better and live longer. In many cases, the cancer does not go away, but is controlled and managed as a chronic disease, much like heart disease or diabetes. This session discusses more about chemotherapy.
The study of cancer epidemiology uses epidemiological methods to find the cause of cancer and to identify and develop improved treatments. This area of study must contend with problems of lead time bias and length time bias. Lead time bias is the concept that early diagnosis may artificially inflate the survival statistics of a cancer, without really improving the natural history of the disease. Length bias is the concept that slower growing, more indolent tumors are more likely to be diagnosed by screening tests, but improvements in diagnosing more cases of indolent cancer may not translate into better patient outcomes after the implementation of screening programs. A related concern is over-diagnosis, the tendency of screening tests to diagnose diseases that may not actually impact the patient's longevity. This session discusses more about cancer epidemiology.
Scientists continue to develop tests that help find specific types of cancer before signs or symptoms appear. This is called screening. The main goals of cancer screening are to reduce the number of people who die from the disease, or eliminate deaths from cancer altogether; and reduce the number of people who develop the disease. Each type of cancer has its own screening tests. Some types of cancer currently do not have an effective screening method. For instance mammography is a type of x-ray specifically designed to view the breast. The images produced by mammography called mammograms can show tumors or irregularities in the breast. Magnetic resonance imaging is not regularly used to screen for breast cancer. Pap test is uses cells from the outside of a woman's cervix. A pathologist then identifies any precancerous or cancerous cells. This test may be combined with HPV testing. This session discusses more about cancer screening tests each specific to the type of cancer.
Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy are the main common anti-tumor therapeutic approaches. However, the non-specific targeting of cancer cells has made these approaches non-effective in the significant number of patients. Non-specific targeting of malignant cells also makes indispensable the application of the higher doses of drugs to reach the tumor region. Therefore, there are two main barriers in the way to reach the tumor area with maximum efficacy. Nanoparticles or NPs are the new identified tools by which we can deliver drugs into tumor cells with minimum drug leakage into normal cells. Conjugation of Nanoparticles with ligands of cancer specific tumor biomarkers is a potent therapeutic approach to treat cancer diseases with the high efficacy. It has been shown that conjugation of nanocarriers with molecules such as antibodies and their variable fragments, peptides, nucleic aptamers, vitamins, and carbohydrates can lead to effective targeted drug delivery to cancer cells and thereby cancer attenuation. This session discusses on the efficacy of different targeting approaches used for targeted drug delivery to malignant cells Nanoparticles.
A Radiologic Technologist, also known as medical radiation technologist and as radiographer, performs imaging of the human body for diagnosis or treating medical problems. The common subjects of basics in Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Microbiology, Surgery & Medicine taught in the 1st year will prepare the student to understand the nature of disease. The hands on experience in the department of Radiology from day one onwards will enable the student to understand the nature of the illness beginning with routine imaging to CT and MRI scans. The students will receive excellent and exhaustive training in these fields to be able to assist senior radiologists.
Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention publishes original peer-reviewed, population-based research on cancer etiology, prevention, surveillance, and survivorship. The following topics are of special interest: descriptive, analytical, and molecular epidemiology; biomarkers including assay development, validation, and application; chemoprevention and other types of prevention research in the context of descriptive and observational studies; the role of behavioral factors in cancer etiology and prevention; survivorship studies; risk factors; and the science of cancer health disparities.
The Exercise Oncology Service brings together scientists and physiologists to study the effect of physical activity on cancer treatment and prognosis. For years, people with cancer and their doctors have been intrigued by the idea that something as simple as exercise could make cancer treatment more effective and allow people to recover more quickly when treatment is over.
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